The very foundation of a company, its core business identity, the most important first step in branding a business for success –
Since the logo is often the first visual clue a potential client or customer will see of your company, it needs to make a great first impression. And a lasting impression!
Logo design is a process. I use a "client brief" to gather important information for the logos I design. It's the first step in collaboration with the client to discover branding needs, goals, aspirations, and ideas. The process also includes researching the industry, trends, competitors, and creative brainstorming before the design process even begins. 
There is no one-size-fits-all solution.